Analytical Design Methodology for Litz-Wired High-Frequency Power Transformers

In the last quarter of a century, high-frequency (HF) transformer design has been one of the major concerns to power electronics designers in order to increase converter power densities and efficiencies. Conventional design methodologies are based on iterative processes and rules of thumb founded more on expertise than on theoretical developments. This paper presents an analytical design methodology for litz-wired HF power transformers that provides a deep insight into the transformer design problem making it a powerful tool for converter designers.

The most suitable models for the calculation of core and winding losses and the transformer thermal resistance are first selected and then validated with a 5-kW 50-kHz commercial transformer for a photovoltaic application. Based on these models, the design methodology is finally proposed, reducing the design issue to directly solve a five-variable nonlinear optimization problem. The methodology is illustrated with a detailed design in terms of magnetic material, core geometry, and primary and secondary litz-wire sizing. The optimal design achieves a 46.5% power density increase and a higher efficiency of 99.70% when compared with the commercial one.