Median Filtering Forensics Based on Convolutional Neural Networks
Median filtering detection has recently drawn much attention in image editing and image anti-forensic techniques. Current image median filtering forensics algorithms mainly extract features manually. To deal with the challenge of detecting median filtering from small-size and compressed image blocks, by taking into account of the properties of median filtering, we propose a median filtering detection method based on convolutional neural networks (CNNs), which can automatically learn and obtain features directly from the image.
To our best knowledge, this is the first work of applying CNNs in median filtering image forensics. Unlike conventional CNN models, the first layer of our CNN framework is a filter layer that accepts an image as the input and outputs its median filtering residual (MFR). Then, via alternating convolutional layers and pooling layers to learn hierarchical representations, we obtain multiple features for further classification. We test the proposed method on several experiments. The results show that the proposed method achieves significant performance improvements, especially in the cut-and-paste forgery detection.